1) Phonological recoding (decoding)
- Basically, sounding out letters in a word to figure out
what the word is
- Children visually examine a word in print and then try to locate that word in their long term memory. If they
cannot retrieve the word they proceed to sound out the letters of the word and then blend the sounds together to identify
what the word is (Siegler & Alibali, 2005).
- This is one of several strategies children use when reading
- Study by Gray & McCutchen (2006) examined the reading abilities of children finishing kindergarten and children
completing Gr. 1 & 2.
They found that children who were above the average in phonological awareness were
5 times more likely to score above the average on word reading than their peers who scored below the average.
Thus concluding that phonological recoding ability influences
the development of reading ability.
Activities to encourage development of phonological awareness
(Candice Bray, 2001):
- Give me a word that rhymes
with “ball” (hall, call, doll)
- Show me the syllables in:
traffic - (tra/ffic)
- Listen and tell me the word. Teacher says "t-e-nn-i-s",
child tells them the word "tennis"
Word to Word:
for each word in the sentence, "The man took his dog for a walk in the park"
- Tell me the sound at the end of the word: "snoop"
- Tell me the sounds in the word: "stamp" - /s/-/t/-/a/-/m/-/p/
2) Visually based retrieval
- influenced by many
factors to help children determine new or unknown words
- context is important
in providing clues to the reader to help identify the word
- children gather information from (Siegler & Alibali, 2005):
1) The particular letters of the word
o Word “thorn” – child knows that /t/ + /h/ = /th/ sound
2) The word as a whole
o Seeing the combination of letters forming one word “stamp”
3) The surrounding context in which
the word is found
o Pictures: mailbox, letter,
o Other words from the sentence: mail, send, letter, post-office,
Example: seeing a stop sign and knowing that the word on the sign is “STOP”