- Learning the different line combinations that define each letter: horizontal,
vertical, curves, diagonals
learning letters, children can still get confused by letters that differ only in orientation: d, b, p, q
- By second or third grade most children have acquired the ability to distinguish between these letters
Most children can identify and name the majority of the
letters of the alphabet by the time they enter school (Hall & Moats, 1999).
2) Phonemic Awareness (Siegler & Alibali,
- the realization
that words consist of separate sounds that make up words
- Phonemic awareness focuses on the sounds of words and not the spelling
- This process is important for identifying different sounds in words and being able to understand the difference in
meaning from these sounds
- Example: “house” & “mouse” What sound is different?
“Where is the house?” vs. “Where is the
The difference in pronunciation of this one sound in these
words changes the entire meaning of the word and sentence.
Activities to encourage development of phonemic awareness
(Yopp & Yopp, 2000):
- think of something that rhymes with the word “mop”
- clap twice for Beckie's name – Be (clap)-kie (clap)
Onset and rime:
- say just the first part of drive /dr/
- what is the word when you put these sounds together: s-p-i-n.