Word awareness/segment into words and syllables:
- foot + ball = football
Discriminate and produce rhyme:
- do "moon" and "spoon" rhyme?
Isolate initial, final or medial sounds:
- do "bat" and "ball" start with the
- what is the last sound in the word
Segment words into phonemes:
- what are the sounds in the word "sun": s-u-n
Blend together: compounds, syllables, phonemes:
- Compound: foot + ball
- Syllables: Sat-ur-day
- Phonemes: d-e-s-k
Manipulate the initial, final and medial
phonemes in words.
the word "bend" to "most":
whether words and sounds are the same or different:
words the same or different?
sounds the same or different?
which word is different:
- doll - toy
- bed - ball
different speech sound: Are these two sounds the same?
does not belong with the other two?
V K V
whether words rhyme
Do mat and
There was a
goat that rowed a ______ (boat).
There was a
parrot that ate a ________ (carrot).
I run fast.
Today is my
Let's play a
syllables or onset-rimes:
+ fly = butterfly
+ man = smowman
+ t = eat
+ ee + p = sheep
+ l + a + t = flat
Delete one part
of a compound word:
Now say it without the "pop".
Delete one part
of a multi-syllabic word:
Say it again but don't say parr.
Say giraffe. Say it again but don't say gi.
Say elephant. Say it again but don't say phant.
Say kangaroo. Say it again but don't say roo.
Delete one consonant from a word:
Say the word "meat". Now say it again without the "mmm".
Say the word "stop". Now say it again without the "sss".
Say the word "man".
Now say it again but change the "mmm" to "fff".
Say the word "map".
Now say it again but change the "ppp" to "ttt".
Say the word "sit".
Now say it again but change the "iii" to "aaa".
Replace one consonant sound from a blend in a word:
Say the word: "slip".
Now say it again but change the "lll" to ""kkk" (slip).
Say the word: "boast".
Now say it again but change the "sss" to ""llll" (bolt).
Transpose the order of sounds in a word:
Say the word: "lots".
Now say it again but reverse the order of the last two sounds (lost).
Say the word: "coast".
Now say it again but reverse the order of the last two sounds (coats).
Activities for developing Rhyme Awareness:
Do These Words Rhyme?
Odd Man Out:
- which 1/3 does not rhyme with the other 2?
- using 2-3 key words, students sort rhyming pictures.
- during attendance, teacher says student name and a word that rhymes.
Which One Does Not Belong?
- using 5 words, 4 from the same word family, students identify the word that
does not belong.
- student supplies missing word that makes sense in riddle, e.g. "The black cat
is very ____."
- group is on a circle, teacher says a word and tosses ball or beanbag to a student.
The student says a word that rhymes and tosses ball on.
- using words from word wall, have students generate rhyming words/word families.
- teacher demonstrates how to segment words into onset-rime using visual support.
- using pat/pat/clap on knees, student practice onset-rime (pat/pat) and blending
them together (clap).
Adapt Familiar Song:
- change rhyming sets in familiar songs.
Activities for Developing Phonemic Awareness:
- teacher provides 2-3 words beginning/ending with the same sound. Students name
other words that begin/end with the same sound.
Guess the Sound:
- teacher shows 2 pictures of words that begin/end with the same sound. Student
"guesses the sound"!
- bag is filled with several pictures of words that have the same sound at the
beginning/end/middle position. Students choose words and identify the common sound.
Listen for Target Sound:
- while reading a familiar story/poem, students raise hand when they hear the
- I'm going on a trip and in my suitcase I'm going to pack...(everything packed
must have same sound at the beginning/end/middle).
- students sort words to match 2-3 key words.
Teacher Read Alouds
- students identify/name words that begin/end with the same sound using children's
- using a book/poem that has been read several times, the teacher says a word
from the selection sound by sound and students name the word. Also, students listen for words that begin/end with the same
- present some words from songs/chants sound by sound and have children blend
the sounds to name them.
- students slowly say word and bring down a cube for each sound in the word, then
blend the sounds together.
(Phonological Awareness Conference, 2003)