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Development of Academic Skills

Reading Strategies

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Children use many different strategies when reading (Siegler & Alibali, 2005):


 - Phonological recoding (decoding) - sounding out letter in a word to determine what the word is

 - Visually based retrieval - gather information from the specific letters of a word, the word as a whole, and the surrounding context in which the word is found

 - Word skill recognition - identification of words

 - Vocabulary knowledge - use of vocabulary to recognize, retrieve, and read words

 - Working memory – combining information coming into sensory memory with information stored in long-term memory and transforming that information into new forms

 - Inference making – forming conclusions about what one reads

 - Back-up strategies - sounding out words, word blending, segmenting, chunking, skip and go on, picture cueing



  Which one is used first? (Siegler & Alibali, 2005)


 -      Easiest and fastest strategy is used first: children want to be able to retrieve a word as fast as they can with as little effort/work as possible.


 -      If they cannot figure out the word by using automatic reading strategies (examples: visually based retrieval, working memory, vocabulary knowledge), they resort to back up strategies, such as sounding out the word by chunking, segmenting or blending sounds together.


 -     May use phonological recoding and visually based retrieval at the same time to figure out a word.

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